2013年11月29日 星期五

Nike FuelBand: Did the Brand Score a Goal?

Nike’s FuelBand activity tracker is one of the company’s hottest sellers ever. Not only did the product sell out online pre-orders in one day twice, but at one point the eBay price was double the suggested retail price. Last year, Nike’s profits leaped 18%, largely bcause of FuelBand — a big turnaround from the 1% year-earlier declineNike introduced the new FuelBand SE this month for $149. Like competitors Fitbit Force and Jawbone, the FuelBand tracks activities such as steps taken, stairs climbed and calories burned. Many users strive to hit fitness goals, notably the 10,000 steps a day recommended by the American Heart Association. Friendly competitions arise among family and friends as these products connect to computers and smartphones to display progress graphically.
So what were some of the marketing elements leading to the success of the FuelBand? To find out, Knowledge@Wharton asked three Wharton marketing professors: Peter Fader, Barbara E. Kahn and David Bell. The three are team-teaching a free online course through Coursera titled, “An Introduction to Marketing,” and their comments here tie into the course modules.
An edited transcript of the conversation appears below.
Kahn on branding:
Knowledge@Wharton: What is product-focused marketing, and how does that relate to the early strategy for the Nike FuelBand?
Barbara E. Kahn: If you think of a market as between a seller and a buyer, on one extreme there is a seller’s market, and on the other extreme there is a buyer’s market. In a seller’s market, if you want the product, you have to go to [the sellers]. That gives them a lot of power in that exchange. Under those circumstances, people tend to do what is called product-focused marketing…. Since you are going to come to [the seller] if you want the product, I [as the seller] work on developing a good product. I work on reducing cost. And I am very much concerned with selling my product.
When Nike FuelBand first came out — I had one of the early ones from the first generation – because there was not much else in the marketplace then, they could really focus on the unique features. I didn’t really consider anything else. I bought a Nike FuelBand because I wanted something that monitored my calories, my steps, my energy, etc., and there really wasn’t very much choice. So that is product-focused marketing.
Knowledge@Wharton: What, then, is customer-focused marketing? Why does that occur? And how did Nike FuelBand adjust its approach?
Kahn: Again, thinking about the exchange between the buyers and sellers — as more competition comes in [and] as there are other substitutes, buyers then have more choice. In that case, when the marketer wants you to buy from them rather than from the competition, they have to start focusing on what you want. And so then it becomes a customer-focused market.
The second generation of the Nike FuelBand really focused on the way the customers were using the product and less on the way Nike thought it should be used. So, one of the things that is different, first of all, is [that] they came out with different colors. [For example,] Volt is the new yellow color — so it is a kind of sexy color.
“In the new version, you just double click and the time comes up right away. That is more customer-focused. It is giving the customers what they want and giving them a reason to buy this over the competition.”–Barbara E. Kahn
The other thing that I think is really interesting is a lot of people were using this FuelBand, and no one wanted that many [devices] lining up on [their] wrist. And so [Nike] — almost as an afterthought — [allowed FuelBand] to tell the time. Well it turns out, because people did not want so many things lining up on their wrists, they were using the FuelBand as [a watch]. But in order to get the time in the original version you have to cycle through all the different [menus].
In the new version, you just double click and the time comes up right away. That is more customer-focused. It is giving the customers what they want and giving them a reason to buy this over the competition.
Knowledge@Wharton: What is the connected community and how does that relate to the Nike FuelBand strategy?
Kahn: If you are looking through these trends in marketing — product-focused when there is not a lot of competition [and then, when] the market gets more competitive … you start being customer-focused — what has happened in the last 10 years is we have a connected community: There is social media; there is the Internet. What is interesting about this product is that every day you can upload your data to the Internet. You can keep track of [of your progress] that way because [the FuelBand] does not hold that much data on each [device]. So you can keep a long record. I have had my record of what I have done for about six months now.
In addition, I can interact with friends who also have a Nike FuelBand. Or I can interact with them on Facebook. We can share data. I can tell my friend when she is being really lazy: “Move it. You are too slow.” She can tell me when I am doing well. We have this whole connected community. I think over time the power for Nike behind the FuelBand is going to be the data. Once they can get that connected to your Facebook activity and connected to other things … they can start really marketing different kinds of products to you and increase customer share and share-of-wallet.
Once you know how I use the product, you might be able to market shoes to me or certain kinds of clothing. If you can upload my data with my Facebook data, you will know that I’m using this in New York or I’m using it in San Francisco or something like that. Or you can see who my friends are and can connect to my friends. Then you can market to my friends…. So once you have that data, if you figure I now have your Internet data and I have your offline data, they know how many calories I am burning. They know when I am doing these kinds of things. You link all those data together and you have a really pretty big picture of your consumer. It seems like there is a lot of opportunity to try to add customer value by understanding exactly what you want and where you are.
Fader on customer centricity:
Knowledge@Wharton: How do activity or fitness trackers, such as the Nike FuelBand, relate to the principles of customer centricity?
Peter Fader: These activity trackers or electronic fitness bands — or whatever it is we want to call them — are actually a great example, or a great opportunity, for customer centricity in action. Part of it is the data…. But part of it is that it gives a company a chance to really surround its valuable customers with a variety of products and services — and information — and to use that information to figure out which kinds of products and services to deliver up to the right kind of customer.
It recognizes that customers are all different from each other. It recognizes that what they are doing or how they are moving around can interplay with what other behaviors they have: what they eat; what kinds of exercises they do; where they live; what their lifestyle is. It gives a company a chance to better understand their customer — not necessarily the specific details of their heart rate and so on, but just a better picture that they could not get any other way.
It is hard to say how much of this data is actually being stored and used by the companies, because the data is going someplace where it can be seen not only by the user, but also by other people. For instance, in the case of the Nike FuelBand, it becomes social fun — I can see my friends’ activities and can compare them to mine. So the data is definitely being stored somewhere. Of course, the user has a lot of control over it.
“One of the other great opportunities with these electronic gadgets is that it gives companies — beyond those that are already in the space — an entry point to deal with customers in a new and different way.”–Peter Fader
One of the other great opportunities with these electronic gadgets is that it gives companies — beyond those that are already in the space — an entry point to deal with customers in a new and different way. For instance, I can see a big pharmaceutical firm giving these bands out — giving them to people as service, as a way to understand what they are doing. Not necessarily to try to push pills on them, but all the pharma firms are talking about customer centricity. They recognize that they need to understand their customers more than just developing new drugs and hoping that people are going to buy them. So it does create new kinds of business opportunities. And I can see lots of different kinds of firms, besides pharma, getting into the space as well.
Knowledge@Wharton: Would the data on someone’s exercise or sleep habits be useful in determining metrics such as customer lifetime value?
Fader: All the data … that are being collected by these electronic fitness bands is a blessing and a curse. On one hand, it adds to the whole idea of big data. It gives us all kinds of columns in a database — all kinds of observations — that we did not have before … that we could not have even dreamed of a few years ago. So on one hand, all of the challenges and opportunities associated with big data are associated with these new kinds of data structures. But there are opportunities there as well. If we can triangulate someone’s purchasing habits with their media consumption, with their exercise activities, with their sleep habits and so on, we can get a more complete picture about who does what.
I am not saying that this kind of information will transform our understanding of customer behavior. I am not saying that it will contribute significantly to our estimates of customer lifetime value. But it can’t hurt. And it is so new and it is so different, it is hard to say just how much incremental contribution it will have. So it will be great to see that. We understand what kinds of statistical methods we would want to use. But the results — the impact — of these new data sources are something the future generations will tell us.
Knowledge@Wharton: What do you see in the future for these and related products and services?
Fader: We are just barely getting started with these new electronic fitness bands. I think there are a lot of people today who are messing around with them. They are trying them out — sometimes unsuccessfully. It is not clear what they are doing with the data or how they are sharing it — or what companies are doing with the data.
But I see this as more of a generational kind of issue. I imagine that the next generation will start putting these fitness bands on our children when they are not even a year old. It will just be something that we want to monitor all the time — obviously for different reasons when they are infants or toddlers than when they are adults. But people are going to be used to wearing these things. They are going to be used to using the data.
The whole idea of the quantified self — a concept that a lot of people are talking about today — it tends to apply more to grownups. Can I look at myself, my exercise, my nutrition and other kinds of habits? But when the quantified self works down to one- and two-year olds — and when they are accustomed to doing it and when they start tying in their exercise activities with their social media usage and their school work and so on — we are going to get just a much more complete picture about individuals.
Now, on one hand, that can be a bit creepy. It can be a bit intrusive. It might be a bit too much. A lot of that data might be useless. But it is going to be a new era. And the idea of people managing their own data — figuring out what the value of that data is to themselves and maybe economically — a lot of folks are talking about that. A lot of companies are developing new business models around that idea.
But I think that these gadgets — these armbands that people are wearing — are going to be the major breakthrough to let people understand the value of their data. And I think these business models will take off as a result of these gadgets moving their way down to children.
Bell on go-to-market strategies:
Knowledge@Wharton: Who’s the lead user, and what are the key segments for the Nike FuelBand?
David Bell: The really interesting thing about the Nike FuelBand is that it potentially appeals to a very, very wide range of users. Everybody from the serious athlete who’s interested in really monitoring what’s going on with the body, to the so-called “weekend warrior” and maybe people like you and I who like to play a bit of tennis, a bit of basketball, this and that, here and there. So, there’s potentially a very, very wide group. I think it also cuts across all of the traditional segmentation variables, like gender — it’s for both men and women. It cuts across various age groups, various socioeconomic brackets. So, this is a product, I think, that if marketed effectively, potentially has a very, very wide target group and a number of segments within that.
“It’s probably going to be difficult to come up with a better messaging than ‘anyone who has a body is an athlete.’ I think that’s what’s really key here.”–David Bell
Knowledge@Wharton: Why is the price $149, and what’s the right point of comparison to communicate price fairness?
Bell: Pricing is a very, very difficult thing to get right, because the price has to be something, obviously, that makes sufficient margin for the firm. The price also has to be fair and relevant relative to the competition, and whatever those other points of comparison and products are. And it also has to be something that the customer feels comfortable with. I think $149 is a price that’s high [enough] that I don’t just feel this is a cheap piece of plastic around my wrist. It’s something that really has technology embedded in it [and that appears to be] a good product and an interesting product. [The price is] not so high that it’s going to be completely inaccessible. But the point of comparison is very, very interesting. Is this like a $50 monitor that would monitor my heart? Clearly it does a little bit more than that, so I don’t want that point of comparison. Is it a new sort of piece of technology, like an iPod or an iPad or an iPhone — something that we’re all used to carrying around? Well, it’s kind of related to those, because it has a USB connection where I get the data feed.
So, I think it’s really interesting — from a pricing point of view — how you use all of those things that we’ve discussed to communicate this value. Of course, it ends in a nine, so it’s cheaper than $150 in some sense, but it doesn’t overly cheapen the product. Those are all the various elements that presumably Nike thought about when it set the price: Here’s the cost; here’s the willingness to pay. What’s the right comparison, in terms of the competition, and then also, the other things that affect fairness in the channel?
You want to take into account what the various competitors are doing, what the early products, like the Fitbit, were and also what might be coming next. How can one then, as has been done with other products in this general class, add to the product line through different colors, different technologies, maybe different levels of service in terms of data feed. So, this is a product where we might start to see that kind of differentiation coming through, too.
Knowledge@Wharton: Why is the message more focused on emotion, rather than on a rational appeal?
Bell: This is a really interesting question. When we discussed in the earlier Coursera segment about the way one communicates, the way one designs a message, and the seven Ms of marketing and communication, one of the key issues around the message is, should the message have a rational appeal? Or should it have an emotional appeal? And of course, it depends on the kind of product.
Emotion is important here, because Nike has this notion that anyone who has a body really is an athlete. We’re all athletes, in some sense. And so, we should be doing the best that we can with our bodies…. Think of the early campaigns of Nike — “Just do it” and “Be like Mike.” It’s very aspirational. It gets you to think about the power of getting in better shape — the way you’re going to feel, the way others are going to perceive you. So, it’s much more important to have that kind of messaging to really resonate with the customers, than a messaging that’s [focused on] count[ing] the number of steps that you’re doing.
This is the technology, and this is how we feel it. I think this is a classic case where the product itself is based on really interesting technology, but the way that you market  and communicate it is actually through things that appeal to the heartstrings in terms of the emotion. And of course, that’s going be a much more successful barrier to future entrants in this category than if it were just purely a play based on technology. Because then when the next player comes in with better technology, the point of comparison may be eroded. But it’s probably going to be difficult to come up with a better messaging than “anyone who has a body is an athlete.” I think that’s what’s really key here.
轉載http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/nike-fuelband-band-brand-strike-goal/

Avena+ Test Bed – Agricultural printing and altered landscapes

http://www.creativeapplications.net/processing/avena-test-bed-agricultural-printing-and-altered-landscapes/

Avena+ Test Bed – Agricultural printing and altered landscapes

Avena_Field
Created by Benedikt GroßAvena+ Test Bed is a project that explores the relationship between landscape, agriculture and digital fabrication by intercepting the process of precision farming by generative design. The emphasis of the project lays in speculating about new models which would enhance current agricultural practices, and to then imagine their possible implications.
With the advent of Precision Farming, agriculture has become fully mapped and will transform farming to a highly digital activity. This in combination with other changes underway in the countryside, mainly the paradigm shift from food to biogas production and various EU subsidy schemes to promote diversity, will lead to disruptive changes within the next few years for the (European) countryside.
The project uses the idea of “Agricultural Printing” to explore the possibilities of digital fabrication carried over into farming. The experiment applies algorithms to partition and to create an environmentally beneficial arrangement of plantation to establish, or improve, the connectivity for fauna and flora between habitats.
Avena_PixelsThis increased diversity also eases typical problems of monocultures e.g. less vermin → reduced usage of pesticides. Furthermore a farmer could “rent out” the areas for several months a year as compensatory area in the same fashion like the CO2 emissions trading scheme works (in the EU every new land for building has to be compensated). Hence in the near future a farmer might not just produce oats, peas, beans and barley, but also print “environment compensations areas” into his fields.
The process included conversion of circumference points to area/polygon with a python script and then exported to a geojson file. Fine tuning of the bounds.geojson file was done in QGIS and illustrator (Benedict had to write an importer/exporter). The new pattern was generated in paper.js, based on bounds.geojson and exported to svg and png. Custom Processing sketch baked the bounds.geojson and the pattern.png (with a pixelsize of 3 mx 3m) to a “print file” for the tractor. There was one file for each “color”: oat seed and flower/herb seed mix. The final oat.geojson and flowers.geojson were converted to shapefiles in QGIS. These files were then imported (oat.shp and flowers.shp) to “Farmworks” (= the CS Suite of a farmer, to convert everything to agricultural machinery speak binary files.
Created using Processing, Javascript, ArcGISQGISShapely
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The circumference of the plot is recorded on site using GPS coordinates. 11.5 hectares (320 m x 920 m) in Unterwaldhausen, South Germany
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Benedikt uses the data collected to devise best algorithm for the plot division and route planning.
avena testbed benedikt groß_11avena testbed benedikt groß_10avena testbed benedikt groß_09avena testbed benedikt groß_08
The data is provided back to the farmer contained on USB memory sticks. Location mapping is done using External GPS/GLONASS reference station for maximum accuracy
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The planting process simulation.
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Mid-Final result. 85% oats (Avena Sativa), 15% eleven different flowers and herbs. Photo of the test bed, flowers are hardly visible (end of May). By the end of July 2013 the test bed will be harvested to produce biogas.
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Picture below taken in July 2013
P6211371

2013年4月9日 星期二

The Health Benefits Of Orange Pith Uncovered



柑橘類水果如橘子早已被稱為高黃酮含量的飲食。黃酮類化合物是強有力的抗氧化劑,可以保護我們的身體免受多種疾病,包括癌症心臟疾病雖然柑橘類水果本身有黃酮含量,但濃度最高的類黃酮被發現的橙色水果和果皮之間(白色部分)其中含量最多的類黃酮物質在柚皮素,在所有的柑橘類水果和番茄研究發現,在柑橘類水果的柚皮素可以抑制腫瘤的生長,可以修復受損的DNA。此外在老鼠身上進行的一項研究發現,柚皮素還可以幫助燃燒多餘的脂肪,通過刺激肝臟代謝。此外,柚皮素也增加高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(好)膽固醇和降低LDL(壞)膽固醇。

2013年4月2日 星期二

The Amazing Health Benefits of Drinking Lemon Water



The Amazing Health Benefits
of Drinking Lemon Water

by Ann Heustad, R.N.
After visiting some friends recently who drank copious amounts of water spiked with fresh organic limes and lemons from trees in their yard and freely offered this delicious concoction to all their guests, the following article reminded me of the value of our mutual dedication to planetary health and wellness through simple healthful remedies.
There are basic lifestyle habits that are important to incorporate into your daily life, and this is certainly one of them. However, we are talking about organic lemons that are tree ripened. If you are buying commercial lemons from the store, learn kinesiology and muscle test the lemons you buy so that you know one way or another whether the lemons you are purchasing are actually therapeutic for you.
“When life gives you a lemon... squeeze it, mix it with six ounces of distilled water and drink twice daily.”
The value of eating lemons is reported by Jethro Kloss in his book Back to Eden:
“The medicinal value of the lemon is as follows: It is an antiseptic, or is an agent that prevents sepsis [the presence of pathogenic bacteria] or putrefaction [decomposition of tissue]. It is also anti-scorbutic, a term meaning a remedy which will prevent disease and assist in cleansing the system of impurities.”
Due to the digestive qualities of lemon juice, symptoms of indigestion such as heartburn, bloating and belching are relieved. By drinking lemon juice regularly, the bowels are aided in eliminating waste more efficiently thus controlling constipation and diarrhea.
On page 659 of Back to Eden, Mr. Kloss points out that, “The lemon is a wonderful stimulant to the liver and is a dissolvent of uric acid and other poisons, liquefies the bile, and is very good in cases of malaria. Sufferers of chronic rheumatism and gout will benefit by taking lemon juice, also those who have a tendency to bleed, uterine hemorrhages, etc.; rickets and tuberculosis. In pregnancy, it will help to build bone in the child. We find that the lemon contains certain elements which will go to build up a healthy system and keep that system healthy and well. As a food, we find, owing to its potassium content, it will nourish the brain and nerve cells. Its calcium builds up the bony structure and makes healthy teeth.
“Its magnesium, in conjunction with calcium, has an important part to play in the formation of albumen in the blood. The lemon contains potassium 48.3, calcium 29.9, phosphorus 11.1, magnesium 4.4. Lemons are useful in treating asthma, biliousness, colds, coughs, sore throat, diphtheria, la grippe [flu or influenza], heartburn, liver complaint[s], scurvy, fevers and rheumatism.”
Since many people today suffer from what they used to call biliousness, it is important to edify our readers to the definition.
Biliousness -- 1. A symptom of a disorder of the liver causing constipation, headache, loss of appetite and vomiting of bile. 2. excess of bile; a bilious fever.
Why the lemon works so well
On page 19 of A.F. Beddoe's book “Biological Ionization in Human Nutrition,” he states that: “Man does not live off the food he eats but off of the energy that is produced from the food he eats.”
The energy you get from your food comes from the atoms and molecules of energy in your food. A reaction takes place as cationic food enters the digestive tract and encounters anionic digestive enzymes.
To explain further, an ion is part of a molecule con-atom or a group of atoms that carry an electrical charge. Ions which carry positive charges are “cations.” Lemons are considered to be anionic, having more electrons (negatively charged ions) of energy as compared to cations (positively charged ions) in their atomic structure. Saliva, hydrochloric acid, bile and the stomach's other digestive juices are also anionic.
Lemon is one of the only foods on the planet that has more anions than cations in its atomic structure.
When considering the electromagnetic properties of food Dr. Beddoe points out that all foods are considered cationic with the exception of fresh, raw lemon juice. Some have suggested that the reason fresh lemon juice is similar to digestive enzymes is due to the low amount of sulfur in lemons. It should be noted that pasteurized and packaged lemon juice is cationic and, therefore, ineffective as a health remedy.
Who Can Benefit From Lemon Water
Dr. Beddoe continues on page 194: “Lemon water is used in every person that can tolerate it. That is, if there is no allergy to lemon (a very few have a true allergy to lemon) and no active ulcers, then all adults and most children should use the lemon water. The purpose of the lemon is to:
  1. provide a natural strengthening agent to the liver enzymes when they are too dilute.
  2. The liver can make more enzymes out of fresh lemon juice than any other food element.
  3. The lemon helps fix oxygen and calciums in the liver because it regulates blood carbohydrate levels which affect the blood oxygen levels.”
In the above book, Dr. Beddoe also cites an article by Dr. Michael Lesser on the medical promise of citric acid in “Anabolism, Journal of Preventive Medicine.” He uses this article to validate the value of using fresh lemon juice daily: “It appears that citric acid, the major carrier of biochemicals in the body's energy system, shows important promise, primarily because of its excellent properties as a chelator. Its ability to form soluble complexes with calcium offers major promise in the successful treatment of pancreatic stones and has also been employed to dissolve kidney stones. Since calcium deposits are of major significance in the much greater problem of hardening of the arteries, citric acid may possibly contribute to a safe and effective reversal of this widespread degenerative disease.”
Even though medical doctors are not currently employing lemon juice in the treatment of the above conditions, this article substantiates the fact that one of the benefits of fresh lemon water is the way the citric acid is able to act upon the body's systems differently than any other food.
Lemon Remedies Published by Jethro Kloss in Back to Eden
  • For sore throat, dilute lemon juice with water and gargle frequently. Dilute one-half lemon juice with one-half water. It is even better to use straight lemon juice.
  • A slice of lemon bound over a corn overnight will greatly relieve the pain.
  • A slice of lemon bound over a felon [pus formation on a finger joint] will not fail to bring the pus to the surface where it can be easily removed.
  • To relieve asthma, take a tablespoon of lemon juice one hour before each meal.
  • For liver complaints, the juice of the lemon should be taken in a glass of hot water one hour before breakfast every morning.
  • To break up la grippe [flu or influenza], drink a large glass of hot water with the juice of a lemon added, while at the same time have the feet in a deep bucket or other vessel of water with mustard added to it. The water should be deep enough to where it comes nearly up to the knees. Keep adding hot water to the patient's tolerance and until the patient begins to perspire freely (about 20-30 minutes). Be sure there is no draft on the person while this is done. The patient should be near a bed so he can get in it easily and avoid any danger of getting chilled. If convenient, a full hot bathtub would be good in place of the foot-bath. The lemon water should be taken every hour until the patient feels that all the symptoms of the cold are gone.
  • A teaspoon of lemon juice in half a glass of water relieves heartburn.
  • For rheumatism, one or two ounces of lemon juice diluted in water should be taken three times a day: one hour before meals and at bedtime.
  • In cases of hemorrhage, lemon juice diluted in water and taken as cold as possible will stop it.
  • Scurvy is treated by giving one to two ounces of lemon juice diluted with water every two to four hours.
  • In excessive menstruation the juice of three to four lemons a day will help check it. Best to take the juice of one lemon at a time in a glass of cold water.
Mr. Kloss explains how lemon juice can even help someone with stomach ulcers:
“How can one with an inflamed or ulcerated stomach partake in the juice? Would not a strong acid like that of the lemon act as an irritant? That would depend on how it was taken. If in quantity, yes. But to take it very weak at first [diluted sufficiently in water], it will cease to burn. The sufferer afflicted with ulcerated stomach has to use great perseverance to affect a cure, and it can be cured if care and patience is used. The gastric juice in the stomach is four times as strong as lemon juice.”
In these cases, I recommend one to two tablespoons of Aloe Vera Gel before the lemon water. Taking 500 mg. of Bromelin has also proven to be helpful.
Buying a sweet lemon
Some lemons are more sweet than others. A rule of thumb for selecting a lemon that is both sweet and high in mineral content, is to pick one that has a high specific gravity measurement and is heavy for its size. By comparing equal-sized fruit, the one with the greatest weight will have the most mineral content and sugar. A thick skinned lemon will not be as heavy as a thin skinned lemon and will not have the desired sweetness or mineral content.
The method I use to ensure the purchase of sweet lemons is to look at the stem end of the lemon. There are two ends on the lemon. One end has a point where the blossom started to grow; the other end has a stem or a dimple where the stem used to be located. On the stem end of a highly mineralized, sweet lemon, you will see little lines radiating out of the stem like sunbeams. These little lines can look like a star shaped structure and is called a calyx. The calyx may have three, four, five or more points to the star. The greater the number of points on the calyx, the higher the mineral content of the lemon.
How much lemon to use
If you are in good health and weigh less than 150 pounds, squeeze the juice of one half a lemon (one ounce) into a glass of purified water and drink this mixture twice a day (one whole lemon a day.) If you weigh over 150 pounds, squeeze the juice out of an entire lemon (two ounces) into a glass of purified water and drink this mixture twice a day (two whole lemons a day.) The lemon juice can be diluted more according to taste.
To help your body get the energy from the food you are eating, drink lemon water regularly. Next to drinking plain purified water, drinking lemon water daily is the most important thing you can do for your health.http://www.quantumbalancing.com/news/lemon%20water.htm

2013年4月1日 星期一

加入TPP 靠汗水不是口水

轉載

馬政府早已設定目標,將在2020年加入跨太平洋夥伴協定(TPP)。經濟部日前表示將透過國際遊說、舉辦說明會、說帖等方式來創造有利的氛圍。2020年距離現在還有七年,外交部長林永樂日前在立法院答詢時進一步表示,在一些條件配合下,我國在2016年以前加入TPP是有可能的。
本報社論日前已經表示,加入TPP是我國的「百年大計」,必須要高度重視,但如果政府持續以這種「嚼口水」方式做為爭取入會的主要方法,我們非常擔心七年之後將一事無成;因為如果不經過「流汗水」的過程,屆時入會氛圍再好,我們大概也無法提出該組織成員能夠接受的開放度,反之又會面對國內的反彈、示威,不太可能會獲得國會的支持。
眾所周知,TPP被美國預期為21世紀的自由貿易協定典範,也就是其自由貿易的涵蓋度超越目前所有的自貿協定;連澳洲、紐西蘭、加拿大等簽署自貿協定經驗豐富的國家,雖然參與了諮商,卻也都戰戰兢兢,多方抗拒美國要求的自由化範圍。
然而,目前諮商已經設定將在今年年底以前完成,外界高度矚目其對未來國際貿易產生的影響;這也迫使日本安倍政府宣布參加諮商,成為其創始諮商國來參與設定規則,以免其設定的自由化程度讓日本在未來難以達成而妨礙加入。日本的加入讓TPP成員的經濟總規模約為全球的四成,若其貿易和投資完全自由,對其他未加入的國家就施加了巨大的競爭壓力。
因此,加入這個「高品質」自由貿易協定的決定,絕非參加一場浪漫的婚禮,而是要全國上下將心理調適過來,準備大量開放國內的產品和服務市場,讓外國產品和企業進入國內和我們的廠商「公平」競爭;只要我們的廠商技不如人,就只能退出市場。當然,這樣的開放也換到了所有的參與國開放他們的市場,只要我們的產品好、服務好,就可以進入對方攻城掠地、頓時快速成長為跨國企業。也就是說,加入TPP是要成為其他參與國更直接的「敵人」,掀起一場艱苦的商業浴血戰,絕不是在國際上找到一些抬高我們身價,公平待我的「朋友」。
但因為理論上各國開放競爭的總效益超過成本,也就是「餅會做大」,因此各國還是朝著貿易自由化的方向努力,連相對競爭力較弱的越南和馬來西亞也把握機會,積極參與了新協定的諮商。而且,參加這個協定不會受到對岸的制肘,只要有決心、有步驟,的確可以突破目前自貿協定不足、貿易逐漸被邊緣化的威脅。
只是,要獲得國人的支持,必須依照公共政策的基本原理,對受害者之傷害適當彌補,協助其轉移資源去進行具有競爭力的生產活動。以國內衝擊可能最大的農業而言,這表示政府應該挪移部分國內資源,協助農業積極轉型,生產高質的農產品或轉移到休閒或觀光農業等具有競爭力的產業;而製造業的弱勢產業也應該獲得改善生產力的協助。
以兩岸ECFA農業不開放的案例來看,政府已經蹉跎兩年的歲月,沒有任何積極方案來應對未來簽署自由貿易協定的需要。其實,中央政府一年的總預算達到1.5兆元,只要調撥各部會的預算挪出1%就有150億元;十年下來就有1,500億元,啟動各種結構調整的方案,這似乎足以調整農業結構,應付未來簽署各種自貿協定的需要。至於製造業的弱勢產業,也許每年50億元,十年撥款500億元也足以應對。
但如果不進行完整周延的研究,只靠一個大量簡化後的概括性總體模型的研究報告推論,也沒有任何積極的調適方案,三不五時動動口水就想加入TPP,真的難矣。
【2013/04/02 經濟日報】http://udn.com/